When the musculoskeletal system is presented with high-level loading it responds dynamically by adapting the command, architecture, morphology and biochemistry of its tissues in order to be better equipped to withstand and generate high level forces. Appropriate mechanical overload is achieved with a maximal or near-maximal resistance that can only performed for few repetitions, with full volitional effort.
1. Muscular hypertrophy seems best achieved by performing multiple sets of 8–12 repetitions with a moderate to high resistance, with 1–3 minutes of recovery between sets.
2. Enhanced neural command is best stimulated by the use of multiple sets of 1–6 repetitions with a very high resistance, with 3–6 minutes of recovery between sets.
3. For continuous strength development strength workouts should be performed two or three times per week. For maximum, long-term strength development, resistance training should be performed 3–6 times per week in a progressive periodized plan.
4. Sports that have infrequent competitions may best utilize a linear periodized programme, whereas unpredictable and/or frequent competition sports would be advised to use an undulating periodization plan for maximum strength training gains.
Type I: slow twitch speed (90–140 milliseconds); high aerobic enzyme concentration; high mitochondrial volume; moderate glycogen content: high capillary perfusion; resistant to fatigue; small diameter. Engaged specifically for sustained, low-force
activity, e.g. steady cycling.
Type IIa: fast twitch speed (50–100 milliseconds); fatigue resistant; moderate to high glycolytic and oxidative enzyme concentration; moderate to high mitochondrial volume; moderate to high capillary perfusion; moderate to high glycogen content.
Engaged during prolonged high-intensity activity, e.g. 400 m track sprint.
Type IIx: fast twitch speed (40–90 milliseconds); fatiguable: high glycolytic enzyme concentration; moderate to high capillary perfusion; moderate to high glycogen content. Engaged during intermittent maximal-force activity, e.g. 1 repetition maximum.
- hypertrophy – high volume, moderate resistance, little rest between sets, increase in muscle mass;
- strength – high volume, high resistance, build upon muscle mass gained, develop neural component;
- power – moderate volume, high levels of rest, high velocity of movement, peak neural activation and development;
- peaking – reduced volume, increased intensity, maximum rest = enhanced performance;
- rest – low volume, low intensity, minimize deconditioning.
(Source:The Physiology of Training)